The effects of the cavitation treatment were studied to understand the distribution and size of particles and the rheological properties of red wine.
The results obtained during the experiments indicate that cavitation influences the particle size distribution by increasing its intervals, which, especially for larger particles, would strengthen the Tyndall effect of the wine, with a consequent increase in brightness in the glass as a visual effect and a fuller flavor.
Furthermore, models can be built on cavitation-mediated changes in wine and its rheological properties, in order to explain and modulate changes in wine taste. The sensory properties of wine can be modified and modulated with cavitation, this makes the application of this technology to winemaking very interesting.
Cavitation is a non-thermal technology, which is rapidly gaining importance and reaching an ever greater diffusion in the food industry.
In enology, cavitation has been considered as one of the most promising and extensively studied techniques to accelerate a natural aging of wine; the flattering results achieved are mainly attributed to the physical effects (mechanical and micro-mechanical) and / or chemical effects such as free radicals ˙OH generated by the decomposition of water within the oscillating bubbles.
Various studies have been conducted in various parts of the world on the effect of cavitation on the physicochemical properties of wine, studying its pH, titratable acidity, electrical conductivity, DPPH (free anti-radical activity) and phenolic compounds.
Regarding the color related to phenolic compounds, the work of Zhang and Wang (2017) studied the effects of cavitation on the evolution of color properties and main phenolic compounds during wine storage: the results indicate that the effects of cavitation not only hava an immediate impact but they persist throughout the evolution of color.
The Studies carried on by García, Martín & Sun (2013) report the influence of cavitation in its organoleptic characteristics.
Furthermore, a significant correlation has also been reported between the osmolarity of the wine and its viscosity (Ko S MERL, Abramovi C & Klofutar, 2000): i.e., rheological properties such as viscosity probably contribute to the palate / sensory characteristics of wine.
In this study the effects of the ultrasonic treatment of the particle size distributions and the rheological properties of red wine were also examined in order to understand and analyze any changes in the organoleptic characteristics induced by ultrasound exposure.